Prior to the first irruption of what developed into French, and European, revolutionary unrest after the political shape of the Italian peninsula derived in large part from the influence of Papal diplomacy over the previous millennium where the Popes had tended to strongly support the existence of a number of small states in the north of the peninsula such that no strong power might presume to try to overshadow the papacy. Such political decentralisation may have facilitated the emergence of a number of mercantile city states such as the Florence of the Medicis and the Milan of the Sforzas and to have allowed a scenario where ambitious men such as Cesare Borgia could attempt to establish themselves as rulers of territories won by statecraft and the sword. The burgeoning wealth of these city states, despite much political turmoil, helped to fund that re-birth of classical learning and of artistic expression that is known as the Renaissance. As time passed some of these mercantile states became reconstituted as Duchies and Grand Duchies.
From the perspective of motivation in education In general, Bandura's social cognitive theory provides a view of human behavior and motivation in which the beliefs that people have about themselves are key elements in the exercise of control and personal agency and in which individuals are viewed both as products and as producers of their own environments and of their social systems.
Effects of Self-Efficacy Beliefs Argument and persuasion essay outline this page As did Dewey, Bandura considered self-reflection the most uniquely human capability, for, through this form of self-referent thought, people evaluate and alter their own thinking and behavior.
These self-evaluations include perceptions of self-efficacy - beliefs in one's capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to manage prospective situations. They influence the choices individuals make and the courses of action they pursue. People engage in tasks in which they feel competent and confident and avoid those in which they do not.
If James was correct that experience is essentially what individuals choose to attend to, then self-beliefs that influence those choices are instrumental in defining one's experience and providing avenues through which individuals exercise control their lives.
Efficacy beliefs also help determine how much effort people will expend on an activity, how long they will persevere when confronting obstacles, and how resilient they will be in the face of adverse situations.
The higher the sense of efficacy, the greater the effort, persistence, and resilience. Efficacy beliefs also influence the amount of stress and anxiety individuals experience as they engage in a task, and, ultimately, the level of accomplishment they realize.
A strong sense of efficacy enhances human accomplishment and personal well-being in countless ways. People with a strong sense of personal competence approach difficult tasks as challenges to be mastered rather than as threats to be avoided. They have greater intrinsic interest and deep engrossment in activities, set themselves challenging goals and maintain strong commitment to them, and heighten and sustain their efforts in the face of failure.
Moreover, they more quickly recover their sense of efficacy after failures or setbacks, and attribute failure to insufficient effort or deficient knowledge and skills which are acquirable.
Conversely, people with low self-efficacy may believe that things are tougher than they really are, a belief that fosters stress, depression, and a narrow vision of how best to solve a problem.
High self-efficacy, on the other hand, helps create feelings of serenity in approaching difficult tasks and activities. As a result of these influences, self-efficacy beliefs are strong determinants and predictors of the level of accomplishment that individuals finally attain.
For these reasons, Bandura has argued that "beliefs of personal efficacy constitute the key factor of human agency. Click here Mastery Experience, the interpreted result of purposive performance, is the most influential source of self-efficacy beliefs.
Simply put, individuals gauge the effects of their actions, and their interpretations of these effects help create their efficacy beliefs.
Success raises self-efficacy; failure lowers it. Students who perform well on math tests and earn high grades in math classes are likely to develop a strong sense of confidence in their math capabilities. This strong sense of efficacy helps ensure that such students will enroll in subsequent math-related classes, approach math tasks with serenity, and increase their efforts when a difficulty arises.
On the other hand, low test results and poor grades generally weaken students' confidence in their capabilities. As a result, students with low mathematics self-efficacy will more likely avoid future mathematics classes and tasks, and they may approach the area of mathematics with apprehension.
Bandura's emphasis that one's mastery experiences are the most influential source of self-efficacy information has important implications for the self-enhancement model of academic achievement, which contends that, to increase student achievement in school, educational efforts should focus on raising students' feelings of self-worth or of competence.
Traditional efforts to accomplish this have included programs that emphasize building self-beliefs through verbal persuasion methods.
Social cognitive theorists shift that emphasis toward efforts to raise competence and confidence primarily through genuine success experiences with the performance at hand, through authentic mastery experiences.
Decades earlier, Erik Erikson put it this way: They may have to accept artificial bolstering of their self-esteem in lieu of something better, but what I call their accruing ego identity gains real strength only from wholehearted and consistent recognition of real accomplishment, that is, achievement that has meaning in their culture.
The second source of efficacy information is the vicarious experience of the effects produced by the actions of others. This source of information is weaker than the interpreted results of mastery experiences, but, when people are uncertain about their own abilities or have limited prior experience, they become more sensitive to it.
As Dale Schunk, a prominent self-efficacy theorist and researcher, has demonstrated, the effects of models are particularly relevant in this context.
A significant model in one's life can help instill self-beliefs that will influence the course and direction that life will take.
Students are likely to develop the belief that "I can do that" when a highly regarded teacher models excellence in an academic endeavor or activity.Guide to writing a persuasive essay Guide to writing a persuasive essay A good way to test the strength of both your topic sentences and your argument as a whole is to construct an outline of your paper using only your paper's thesis statement and topic sentences.
Hamilton College. College Hill Road, Clinton, NY Article on a persuasive essay outline preparation, arteensevilla.com It’s important to create an outline that organizes the evidence and help the author build a strong argument.
A good persuasive essay outline consists of six paragraphs. An outline will enable the writer to present his ideas in a sequential order. Lecture outline on self-efficacy and Albert Bandura.
In general, Bandura's social cognitive theory provides a view of human behavior and motivation in which the beliefs that people have about themselves are key elements in the exercise of control and personal agency and in which individuals are viewed both as products and as producers of their own environments and of their social systems.
Through a classroom game and resource handouts, students learn about the techniques used in persuasive oral arguments and apply them to independent persuasive writing activities.
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers. DIR Atlas AUGUSTUS (31 B.C. - 14 A.D.) [Additional entry on this emperor's life is available in DIR Archives]. Garrett G. Fagan Pennsylvania State University.
Introduction Augustus is arguably the single most important figure in Roman history. I regard myself as an advocate of animal rights — as a part of the animal rights movement.
That movement, as I conceive it, is committed to a number of goals, including.