Most of these people were Gore supporters; disillusioned by the fact that Bush won the office of the President while, in fact, he lost the popular vote. The American people did not elect George W. Bush; the Electoral College did. There have been many close elections, but none have resulted in the popular candidate losing to his opponent.
Electoral systems Electoral systems are the set of rules that structure how votes are cast at elections for a representative assembly and how these votes are then converted into seats in that assembly.
Given a set of votes, an electoral system determines the composition of the parliament or assembly, council, and so on as the case may be. Not only do theses electoral systems vary across the world but they are also, in many countries, the subject of fierce political debate and argument.
In order to determine the main advantages and disadvantages of both majoritarian and proportional government within electoral systems it is vital that we discuss the founding principles of each and how each version within both eg, Majoritarian- First Past The Post, Alternative Vote and Second Ballot System and Proportional-Single Transferable Vote, Additional Member System and Party-list System is practiced throughout politics and elections.
There are two main basic systems in regards to parliamentary electoral systems. The first being, majority election system and second being proportional representative electoral system. Majority electoral systems include, first past the post FPTP. General elections in the UK are carried out using this single member plurality system: In order to win a constituency must win more votes than any other candidates.
Haywood argues that one of the main disadvantages of majority electoral systems being implemented is the limited spread of representation.
As with this system there only needs to be one vote between the winner and the candidate in second place. Therefore it does not necessarily have to be an overall majority. By using FPTP it is not usual to find that runner up has just fallen short of the winner.
Arguable the most advantageous feature of FPTP is how simple it is to carry out. As the system is so simplistic, it is not very time consuming and votes can be counted very easily and the winner can be informed instantly.
The Second Ballot system is used traditionally in France. This system uses two ballots to ensure that the winning candidate receives the majority of the votes, hence why the system is called Majoritarian. This process slightly differs from FPTP as it consists of two ballots, not one.
In some cases, if one candidate is sufficiently popular a second ballot will not be needed. The Second Ballot system is a single member constituency.
Under this system, it ensures that the winner has a majority of the votes cast and the proportion of seats granted in parliament to the winner candidates reflects the votes they received in the election.
Voters can also have another say, even if their original voted candidate has been eliminated, which is thought to be an advantage, as the voters can have another say due to their two votes, therefore, even if their original voted candidate has been eliminated.
However, with every advantage comes disadvantages.
Due to the use of two votes, the process is prolonged. This wait inbetween the two rounds of voting can sometimes lead to voters switching allegiances as their first preferred candidates in the first round may be eliminated before the second round.
It is quite common for the former forerunner in the first ballot to lose in the second ballot, due to the shift in support for candidates in the period between. Proportional representation PR is used in Scotland. It is the alternative to FPTP as this system attempts to share out the seats available in parliament in proportion to the number of votes received in that election Parliament UK.
There are many different forms of proportional representation. The first is Additional member systems. This is a hybrid system which allows people to have a local constituency MSP and also add other member to make the overall result more proportional.
Many argue that this system has its benefits the voters. Haywood argues that the votes casted are less likely to be wasted. This is due to voters having more choice as smaller parties can put forward more candidates and then they are more likely to have someone elected due to the second vote for a party.
Through this system, extremist parties are avoided. InScotland had a coalition government which means the party have to co-operate with each other, so there is a negotiation and agreement about the policies introduced. The wide range of parties in the Parliament reflect the country more accurately making it more representative.
Women and minorities are more likely to be elected because the parties are more likely to be elected because the parties put forward their list of candidates in order of preference, so voters are not electing specific individual against whom they may be prejudiced.
The Additional Member system, gives a fairer result. As the election for the Scottish Parliament demonstates the overall use of AMS gives a proportional truly democratic result within its seats. One of arguably the main advantages of this system is that many view points can be represented in parliament as each voter gets to two opportunities to vote.
Their first votes would be for their preferred constituency MP and the second is cast for a party, which may be different from their initial supported party.On June 7, , the government formed the Parliamentary Committee on Electoral Reform, as part of the Liberal government’s campaign promise that would be the last election held under first- .
Electoral college reform: challenges and possibilities / Why hasn't the United States reformed the Electoral College system, and how can it best do so?
To address these questions, Electoral College Reform: Challenges and Possibilities brings together new essays by law professors and political scientists examining the reasons for reform, the.
Published: Mon, 5 Dec The debate over electoral reform is a longstanding one. It has been around for decades and in true terms it is a debate over whether the current first-past-the-post (FPTP) system should be scrapped for a new one or not.
A collection of articles critically examining Canada's current first-past-the-post electoral system and the case made for switching to proportional representation. Nick Loenen, Citizenship and Democracy: A Case for Proportional Representation. The regularity at which these case studies appear on the papers can also be indicative of larger areas that may come up.
For example, the frequency of questions relating to the elections of and would suggest that Home Rule is a generally popular topic among the SEC. The "winner-take-all" system that embodies the Electoral College is generally the most offensive to voters. With this idea, examining any given state as its own entity, there could be an extremely close election, but the winner in that state will take all of the electoral votes for that state (in 48 states out of 50).4/4(1).