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History[ edit ] The first definition of the cognitive network was provided by Theo Kantor in his doctoral research at KTH, The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, including a presentation in June of the cognitive network as the network with memory.
Theo was a student of Chip Maguire who also was advising Joe Mitola, the originator of cognitive radio. Mitola focused on cognition in the nodes, while Kantor focused on cognition in the network.
Mitola's Licentiate thesis, published in August, includes the following quote "Over time, the [Radio Knowledge Representation Language] RKRL-empowered network can learn to distinguish a feature of the natural environment that does not match the models. It could declare the errors to a cognitive network.
IBM's autonomic networks challenge of instigated the introduction of a cognition cycle into networks. Cognitive radio, Kantor's cognitive networks, and IBM's autonomic networks provided the foundation for the parallel evolution of cognitive wireless networks and other cognitive networks.
InPetri Mahonen, currently at RWTH, Aachen, and a member of Mitola's doktoral committee organized the first international workshop on cognitive wireless networks at Dagstuhl, Germany. One of the attempts to define the concept of cognitive network was made in by Thomas et Knowledge management thesis dissertation.
A survey  and an edited book  reveal some of these efforts. The Knowledge Plane is "a pervasive system within the network that builds and maintains high level models of what the network is supposed to do, in order to provide services and advice to other elements of the network".
Definition[ edit ] Thomas et al.
This loop, the cognition loop, senses the environment, plans actions according to input from sensors and network policies, decides which scenario fits best its end-to-end purpose using a reasoning engine, and finally acts on the chosen scenario as discussed in the previous section.
The system learns from the past situations, plans, decisions, actions and uses this knowledge to improve the decisions in the future. This definition of CN does not explicitly mention the knowledge of the network; it only describes the cognitive loop and adds end-to-end goals that would distinguish it from CR or so called cognitive layers.
This definition of CN seems to be incomplete since it lacks knowledge which is an important component of a cognitive system as discussed in,     and.
The knowledge plane needs at least two elements: Furthermore, in  and,  a detailed cross-layer network architecture was proposed for CNs, where CN is interpreted as a network that can utilize both radio spectrum and wireless station resources opportunistically, based upon the knowledge of such resource availability.
Since CR has been developed as a radio transceiver that can utilize spectrum channels opportunistically dynamic spectrum accessthe CN is therefore a network that can opportunistically organize CRs. The CN architecture is based on a new definition of wireless linkage. The new abstract wireless links are redefined as arbitrary mutual co-operations among a set of neighboring proximity wireless nodes.
In comparison, traditional wireless networking relies on point-to-point "virtual wired-links" with a predetermined pair of wireless nodes and allotted spectrum. This network architecture also has the following three primary principles: Based on the definition of abstract wireless linkage, wireless link modules are implemented in individual wireless nodes, which can set up different types of abstract wireless links.
According to the functional abstractions, categories of wireless link modules can include: Therefore, network functionality can be integrated in the design of wireless link modules. This also results in two hierarchical layers as the architectural basics, including the system layer and the wireless link layer, respectively.
The bottom wireless link layer supplies a library of wireless link modules to the upper system layer; the system layer organizes the wireless link modules to achieve effective application programming. In realizing the cognitive wireless networking concept, both the occupied spectrum and the participating nodes of an abstract wireless link are opportunistically determined by their instantaneous availabilities.
This principle decides the design of wireless link modules in the wireless link layer. The system performance can improve with larger network scale, since higher network density introduces extra diversity in the opportunistic formation of any abstract wireless links.
Global application or network QoS Quality of Service is decoupled into local requirements of co-operations in neighboring wireless nodes, i.Application of Knowledge Management: 19 CHAPTER-3 21 RISK MANAGEMENT LITERATURE REVIEW 21 Background and history: 22 Risk classification: 22 Project outlook of risks: 23 Definition of Risk Management: 23 Knowledge and Uncertainty: 24 Uncertainty and Risk: 25 The Risk Management process: 26 1.
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