Literature[ edit ] Literary criticism is the analysis of literature. The focus can be as diverse as the analysis of Homer or Freud. While not all literary-critical methods are primarily analytical in nature, the main approach to the teaching of literature in the west since the mid-twentieth century, literary formal analysis or close reading, is.
Conclusion Introduction There are no precise, reliable statistics on the amount of computer crime and the economic loss to victims, partly because many of these crimes are apparently not detected by victims, many of these crimes are never reported to authorities, and partly because the losses are often difficult to calculate.
Nevertheless, there is a consensus among both law enforcement personnel and computer scientists who specialize in security that both the number of computer crime incidents and the sophistication of computer criminals is increasing rapidly.
Experts in computer security, who are not attorneys, speak of "information warfare". While such "information warfare" is just another name for computer crime, the word "warfare" does fairly denote the amount of damage inflicted on society.
Two comments on word usage in this essay: I normally write in a gender neutral way, but here I use the masculine pronoun for computer criminals, because 1 female computer criminals are rare and 2 I can't imagine a feminist attacking me because I deny equal recognition to women criminals.
However, to most users of English, the word "hacker" refers to computer criminals, and that is the usage that I have adopted in this essay.
The legal problem of obscenity on the Internet is mostly the same as the legal problem of obscenity in books and magazines, except for some technical issues of personal jurisdiction on the Internet. Similarly, many crimes involving computers are no different from crimes without computers: Stealing a laptop computer with proprietary information stored on the hard disk inside the computer is the same crime as stealing a briefcase that contains papers with proprietary information.
Using the Internet or online services to solicit sex is similar to other forms of solicitation of sex, and so is not a new crime. Using computers can be another way to commit either larceny or fraud. In contrast to merely using computer equipment as a tool to commit old crimes, this essay is concerned with computer crimes that are new ways to harm people.
E-mails with bogus From: Posting messages in an Internet newsgroup or online bulletin board with a false author's name that is intended to harm the reputation of the real person of that name. These acts might be punishable by existing criminal statutes that prohibit impersonation, forgery, deceit, or fraud.
However, a judge might decide that the specific language in old statutes about writing or signature does not apply to e-mail.
Rather than write new statutes for forged e-mail addresses or unauthorized sending of e-mail in someone else's name, I would prefer that legislatures broaden the existing criminal statutes for analogous crimes with paper and ink.
Similar issues arise in both: Unauthorized Use Unauthorized use of computers tends generally takes the following forms: The criminal reads or copies confidential or proprietary information, but data is neither deleted nor changed. Inthe Melissa virus infected a [possibly confidential] document on a victim's computer, then automatically sent that document and copy of the virus via e-mail to other people.
Subsequently, the SirCam and Klez malicious programs made a similar release of [possibly confidential] documents from a victim's computer. These malicious programs are a new way to release confidential information from a victim's computer, with the confidential information going not to the author of the malicious program, but to some person unknown to the author of the malicious program.
For example, change a grade on a school transcript, add "money" to a checking account, etc. Unauthorized changing of data is generally a fraudulent act. Deleting entire files could be an act of vandalism or sabotage.
Denying service to authorized users. On a modern time-sharing computer, any user takes some time and disk space, which is then not available to other users. Duringcomputer programs and data were generally stored on cardboard cards with holes punched in them.
If a vandal were to break into an office and either damage or steal the punch cards, the vandal could be adequately punished under traditional law of breaking and entering, vandalism, or theft.
However, after aboutit became common to enter programs and data from remote terminals a keyboard and monitor using a modem and a telephone line. This same technology allowed banks to retrieve a customer's current balance from the bank's central computer, and merchants to process credit card billing without sending paper forms.
But this change in technology also meant that a criminal could alter data and programs from his home, without physical entry into the victim's building.
The traditional laws were no longer adequate to punish criminals who used computer modems. Most unauthorized use of a computer is accomplished by a person in his home, who uses a modem to access a remote computer.
In this way, the computer criminal is acting analogous to a burglar. The classic definition of a burglary is: In traditional burglaries, the felony was typically larceny, an unlawful taking of another person's property. However, in the unauthorized use of another's computer, the criminal "enters" the computer via the telephone lines, which is not breaking into the building.
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