The development of the new english colonies in the early 1600s

Settlement and Economic Development: English colonization would open lucrative new American markets for "the Woollen clothes of England " and "sundry [of] our commodities upon the tract of that firme land. The first to feel the effects of this transformation were the Native Americanswho met English vessels at the shore with valuable furs which they readily exchanged for prized English goods such iron tools, glass beads, and woven cloth. The fur trade also exerted a profound impact on Native American economic life as imported European goods began displacing traditional tools, weapons, utensils, apparel, and ornamentation.

The development of the new english colonies in the early 1600s

Reconstruction in Practice New England Colonies It has long been understood that the prime motive for the founding of the New England colonies was religious freedom. Certainly what those early colonists wanted was the freedom to worship God as they deemed proper, but they did not extend that freedom to everyone.

Those who expressed a different approach to religious worship were not welcome. Puritans especially were intolerant toward those who held views other than their own. Much of the religious disaffection that found its way across the Atlantic Ocean stemmed from disagreements within the Anglican Church, as the Church of England was called.

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They argued that the Church of England was following religious practices that too closely resembled Catholicism both in structure and ceremony. The Anglican clergy was organized along episcopalian lines, with a hierarchy of bishops and archbishops.

A more extreme view was held by the Separatists, a small group mainly from the English town of Scrooby, who opposed any accommodation with the Anglican Church. At first, the Separatists left England for the more tolerant atmosphere of the Netherlands, but after a while, their leaders found the Dutch a little too tolerant; their children were adopting Dutch habits and culture.

When the opportunity arose to settle on land granted by the Virginia Company of London, the Separatists accepted the offer. Inthey set sail for America on the Mayflower. As a result of their migrations, the Separatists became known as the Pilgrims, people who undertake a religious journey.

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Instead of landing on Virginia Company land, however, the Pilgrims found themselves in what is now southern Massachusetts. Because they were outside the jurisdiction of the company and concerned that new Pilgrims among them might cause problems, the leaders signed the Mayflower Compact, an agreement establishing a civil government under the sovereignty of King James I and creating the Plymouth Plantation colony.

The Pilgrims endured terrible hardships in their first years at Plymouth, with disease and starvation taking a toll.

The development of the new english colonies in the early 1600s

The infant colony grew slowly, raising maize and trading furs with the nearby Dutch as well as with the Indians. Plymouth Plantation was the first permanent settlement in New England, but beyond that distinction, its place in American history is somewhat exaggerated. The Massachusetts Bay colony.

Almost overnight, they founded a half dozen towns, setting up churches on the congregationalist pattern under the Reverend John Cotton. These churches ran their own affairs, taxed the community to finance operations, and hired and fired ministers.

Although church attendance was compulsory, not everyone was deemed worthy of membership.

The development of the new english colonies in the early 1600s

This intimidating test ultimately served to limit church membership and forced the next generation to modify procedures. Education was a high priority in Puritan society because literacy was essential to Bible study. Laws were passed calling for the creation of grammar schools to teach reading and writing, and Harvard College was founded in to train the clergy.

The narrow views of the Puritan leaders regarding religious conformity provoked opposition. Roger Williams argued for the separation of church and state, and the right of privacy in religious belief, and against compulsory church service.

Banished from Massachusetts Bay inhe went south to Narragansett Bay and founded the Providence settlement. InWilliams received royal permission to start the colony of Rhode Island, a haven for other religious dissenters.

Anne Hutchinson was another critic of clerical authority. Puritan leaders called her and her supporters Antinomians—individuals opposed to the rule of law. Tried for sedition, Hutchinson was also exiled as a danger to the colony. She lived in Rhode Island for a time and then moved to New Netherland, where she was killed in during a conflict between settlers and Indians.

The Puritans brought disease as well as their religion to the New World, and the impact on the native population was the same as it had been in the Caribbean, Mexico, and South America a century earlier. As settlements expanded beyond the coastal region, conflicts with the local tribes became common, with equally devastating results.

Notably, for the colonists in Massachusetts Bay and New England, disease was less of a problem than it was in the southern colonies. The cold winters limited travel, and the comparatively small farming communities that were established limited the spread of infection.

Death rates dwindled, and life expectancy rose. Improved survival combined with the immigration of entire families contributed to the rapid growth of the population. Massachusetts Bay was a theocratic society, or a society in which the lines between church and state were blurred.

Church membership, for example, was required for men to vote for elected local officials. Single men and women could not live on their own. Disrespectful servants, errant husbands, and disobedient wives were subject to civil penalties, and rebellious children could even be put to death.

The laws also provided a degree of protection for women by punishing abusive men and compelling fathers to support their children.For a brief time in the late s, the English government developed the “Dominion of New England,” which sought to bolster colonial defense in the event of war and bring the colonies .

By , almost , people, most of whom were born in England or were of English descent, lived in the colonies. Virginia was England’s first North American colony, and as many as , English migrants arrived here in the s.

Notably, for the colonists in Massachusetts Bay and New England, disease was less of a problem than it was in the southern colonies. The cold winters limited travel, and the comparatively small farming communities that were established limited the spread of infection.

The founders of the New England colonies had an entirely different mission from the Jamestown settlers. Although economic prosperity was still a goal of the New England settlers, their true goal was spiritual. The new church under the king's leadership was approved by the English Parliament, but not all the people in England were willing to.

By the end of the s, the leaders of Chesapeake society were able to foster greater unity and stability due to all of the following EXCEPT: accepting responsibility for .

In the early s, in rapid succession, the English began a colony (Jamestown) in Chesapeake Bay in , the French built Quebec in , and the Dutch began their interest in the region that became present-day New York.

The New England Colonies [arteensevilla.com]